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Background. Pre-medication with clonidine reduces the requirement for volatile agents during general anaesthesia. This may also be true for anaesthesia with propofol, but the amount of dose reduction has not been measured. Because clonidine also affects cardiac output and thus regional blood flow it could alter the pharmacokinetics of propofol. This randomized, doubleblind placebo-controlled trial aimed to study the effect of clonidine pre-medication on dose requirement for propofol during lower extremity vascular surgery using the bispectral index BIS ; as a measure of anaesthetic depth. Methods. After oral pre-medication with either clonidine 3 mg kg1 or placebo, 39 subjects had lower limb vascular surgery using propofol infusion for anaesthesia. Anaesthetic depth was adjusted to a BIS of 45. Predicted plasma propofol concentrations were noted every 30 min from a target-controlled propofol infusion pump and arterial samples were taken at the same time for propofol measurements. Results. Patients in both groups were anaesthetized to similar depths of anaesthesia as indicated by BIS readings P 0.44 ; . The groups had comparable mean 95% CI ; arterial concentrations of propofol, 4.8 3.56.1 ; mg ml1 in the patients given clonidine, and 4.6 3.45.7 ; mg ml1 in the patients given placebo P 0.81 ; . However, the average plasma concentration predicted by the target-controlled infusion was less in the clonidine group [3.2 2.93.5 ; ] than in the group given placebo [3.6 3.33.9 ; ] mg ml1 P 0.05 ; . Conclusions. Pre-medication with clonidine reduces the requirement for propofol, which is a pharmacokinetic effect and not a pharmacodynamic central sedative effect. Br J Anaesth 2005; 95: 1838 Keywords: anaesthetics i.v., propofol; pharmacokinetics; premedication, clonidine Accepted for publication: April 13, 2005.
Addressing this question.21 Hormone replacement therapy use was associated with increases in total stroke OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.47 ; , nonfatal stroke OR 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.44 ; , fatal or disabling stroke OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.20 ; , ischemic stroke OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.56 ; , with a trend toward more fatal strokes OR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.88 ; and no increase in hemorrhagic stroke OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.75 ; . Hormone replacement therapy cannot be recommended for the primary stroke prevention and likely increases risk.
Ing phase. If administration during image acquisition is impractical, however, a hypotonic agent will be of value. The diagnostic images that are acquired in the coronal plane at MR imaging represent a distinct advantage over the current CT enteroclysis technique. Although CT enteroclysis has facilitated diminishment of the subjective factor inherent in barium sulfate enteroclysis, one benefit of MR enteroclysis relative to CT enteroclysis is real-time functional information provided by MR imaging 13 ; . The need for fluoroscopic experience is a disadvantage of barium sulfate enteroclysis. With real-time MR imaging, this influence can be reduced. Real-time imaging of the small bowel during injection could be obtained by using breathhold T2-weighted sequences, the images from which could then be reviewed in a cine-loop format to obtain functional information concerning bowel obstruction. This is important at teaching institutions, where inexperienced residents perform real-time assessment and where on-site staff supervision may not always be possible. One important variable that is lost with both MR and CT enteroclysis, as compared with barium sulfate enteroclysis, is the ability to compress the distended bowel. Are small intramural nodules going to be overlooked at MR enteroclysis because compression is not used, or will the direct multiplanar capabilities and the distention produced by contrast agent administration make compression dispensable? It is unlikely that compression will be critical, as long as the small bowel is distended and multiplanar images are acquired. Further experience will answer this question fully. The single false-negative diagnosis of small-bowel obstruction secondary to overlapping bowel segments reported by Umschaden et al 6 ; may be related to a limitation in the imaging technique they used. If multiple, thin, tomographic sections had been obtained during a breath hold, these images might have helped prevent the falsenegative result. Whether MR enteroclysis will readily replace currently used methods of smallbowel imaging will depend on how this method can be integrated in the clinical setting in a practical manner that will be acceptable to patients, referring clinicians, and surgeons. Economic considerations and the interest or expertise of radiologists will be important factors. Although Umschaden et al 6 ; emphasize the merits of intubation for administration of the contrast agent at small-bowel.
Director of IKAT: Prof.dr. H.J. van den Herik Head of the Department of Computer Science: Prof.dr. E.O. Postma Name I. Berezhnoy N.H. Bergboer, M . L.M.M. Braun, M . F.J.L.M. Claus, LL.M. Prof.ir L.A.A.M. Coolen G.C.H.E. de Croon M.F. van Dartel, M . Dr. H.H.L.M. Donkers C.A. van Dorp, M . P.M.J. Geurtz Mrs. J.W. Hellemons Prof.dr. H.J. van den Herik Ms. H.M.J. den Hoed S. de Jong F. de Jonge, M . P.A.M. van der Krogt, M . J.P.W. Lacroix, M . Ms. M.E. van der Mee Prof.dr. J.M.J. Murre R.J.P. Plompen Dr. L.A. Plugge Prof.dr. E.O. Postma N.M. van Rodijnen, M . Dr. N. Roos Dr. E.N. Smirnov A.W.A. Spek, M . Dr. I.G. Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper A.P.J. Sprinkhuizen, M . P.H.M. Spronck, M . Mrs. M.L. Tiessen Dr. J.W.H.M. Uiterwijk J.P.G.M. Verbeek, LL.M Prof.dr. H. Visser E.C.D. van der Werf, M . Dr. F.J. Wiesman M.H.M. Winands, M . Prof.dr. A.J. van Zanten * ; Position Ph.D. student Ph.D. student Ph.D. student Researcher Professor Ph.D. student Ph.D. student Researcher Lecturer System administrator Administrator Full Professor Secretary Ph.D. student Ph.D. student Project member Ph.D. student Secretary Professor Department assistant Assistant Professor Full Professor Ph.D. student Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Ph.D. student Assistant Professor Educational Co-ordinator Researcher Coordinator secretary Associate Professor Researcher Professor Ph.D. Student Assistant Professor Ph.D. student Professor Remarks and capecitabine.
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Breast cancers for therapy selection is now standard clinical practice. In the 1970s, a time when many clinicians did not consider anti-estrogen compounds to be very effective against breast cancer, Jensen and his Chicago colleague Craig Jordan, PhD, also showed that the anti-estrogen compound tamoxifen worked well in many women with large amounts of estrogen receptor. The clinical results from simply taking a pill saved patients from undergoing the more aggressive anti-hormone approach-- removal of the ovaries and the adrenal glands. Jensen and his colleagues Sohaib Khan, PhD, of UC's Department of Cell Biology, Neurology and Anatomy, and Tom Burris, PhD, of Eli Lilly and Company, are currently studying Jensen's latest finding--that the estrogen receptor has in fact two binding sites for tamoxifen--and determining its significance in the treatment of breast cancer. Story derived from press release by David Bracey, University of Cincinnati.
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Rationale: Ensure appropriate diagnostic, utilization, and safety criteria. FDA Approved Indications: Delayed puberty male ; , hypogonadism, female metastatic mammary cancer. References: 1. Gould DC, Petty R, Jacobs HS. The male menopause: does it exist? BMJ 2000; 320: 858-861. National Institute on Aging. Scientific task force to examine usefulness of testosterone replacement therapy in older men. NIH News Release. November 6, 2002. Available at: : nia.nih.gov news pr 2002 1106 3. Miller KK. Special Articles: Hormones and Reproductive Health. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86 6 ; : 2395-2401. 4. Conway AJ, Handelsman DJ, Lording DW, Stuckey B, Zajac JD. Use, misuse and abuse of androgens. MJA 2000; 172: 220-224. The Formulary Monograph Service, Facts and Comparisons, St Louis, Missouri, 2003. 6. Francis S. Greenspan and David G. Gardner eds. Lange Basic and Clinical Endocrinology. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; 2004 7. Lui PY, Swerdloff RS, Wang C. Relative testosterone deficiency in older men: Clinical definition and presentation. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2005; 34: 957-72. Created: 09 2005 Effective: 01 08 Termed: Reviewed: 11 08 06.
Op op ; mice are not permanent, but progressively correct with age. ExpHematol. 1993; 21: 493-495. Hume DA, Robinson AP, MacPherson GG, Gordon S. The mononuclear.
Byetta lilly dotREFERENCES 1. Second MIC Cooperative Study Group: Morphologic, immuUchino H: C-G translocation in acute myelocytic leukemia with nologic and cytogenetic MIC ; working classification of the acute low neutrophil alkaline phosphatase. Cancer 37: 2380, 1976 myeloid leukemias. Br J Haematol68: 487, 1988 7. Kamada N, Dohy H, Okada K, Oguma N, Kuramoto A, 2. Trujillo JM, Cork A, Ahearn MJ, Youness EL, McCredie KB: Tanaka K, Uchino H: In vivo and in vitro activity of neutrophil Hematologic and cytologic characterization of 8 21 translocation alkaline phosphatase in acute myelocytic leukemia with 8; 21 acute granulocytic leukemia. Blood 53: 695, 1979 translocation. Blood 58: 1213, 1981 Berger R, Bernheim A, Daniel MT, Valensi F, Sigaux F, 8. Drabkin HA, Diaz M, Bradley CM, Le Beau MM, Rowley Flandrin G: Cytologic characterization and significance of normal JD, Patterson D: Isolation and analysis of the 21q + chromosome in karyotypes in t 8; 21 ; acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 59: 199, the acute myelogenous leukemia 8; 21 translocation: Evidence that 1984 c-mos is not translocated. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 464, 1985 Swirsly DM, Li YS, Matthews JG, Flemans RJ, Rees JKH, 9. Diaz MO, Le Beau MM, Rowley JD, Drabkin HA, Patterson Hayhoe FGJ: 8; 21 Translocation in acute granulocytic leukemia. D: The role of the c-mos gene in the 8; 21 translocation in human Br J Haematol56: 199, 1984 acute myeloblastic leukemia. Science 229: 767, 1985 Kamada N, Okada K, Ito T, Nakatsui T, Uchino H: Chromo10. RosendorfT J, Bowcock AM, Kuyl JM, Mendelow B, Pinto somes 21-22 and neutrophil alkaline phosphatase in leukemia. MR, Bernstein R: Localization of the human c-mos gene by in situ Lancet 17: 364, 1968 hybridization in two cases of acute myelocytic leukemia type M2. 6. Kamada N, Okada K, Oguma N, Tanaka R, Mikami M, Cancer Genet Cytogenet 24: 137, 1987 and campral.
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Corresponding author: Jrgen Thomale, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Essen Medical School, Virchowstr. 173, D-45122 Essen, Germany; phone: -49 201 723 4230; fax: -49 201 723 5904; e-mail: juergen.thomale uni-essen.
T is unclear whether depression is a cause or consequence of progressive cognitive decline. Bassuk et al p 1073 ; assessed the relationship between depressive symptoms and subsequent cognitive performance in a cohort of community-dwelling elderly subjects followed up for 12 years. Depressive symptoms strongly presaged future cognitive losses among respondents evincing mild to moderate cognitive difficulties at baseline but were not associated with onset or rate of decline among initially cognitively intact persons. Because depression seems to be a reaction to rather than a risk factor for cognitive decline, these findings should restrain expectations that treatment for depression will delay dementia onset in elderly patients. A Commentary by Meyers and Bruce is included. n a magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenic patients, their siblings, and controls, Cannon et al p 1084 ; found that gray matter reduction in schizophrenia reflects genetic influences that predispose to the disorder and or shared environmental factors ; , while ventricular enlargement reflects primarily nonshared etiologic influences and or factors secondary to the illness or its treatment and carbachol.
Which of the following statements best describes a general consideration associated with the use of keratolytic agents? a. b. These agents are not to be used on mucous membranes. These agents sometimes produce a yellowish and greasy scaling around the mid-parts of the face when they are applied as a treatment for acne. These agents usually make a person excessively sensitive to the effects of cold and wind. These agents are used to damage the cornified layer of skin so that it will be sloughed off.
1999, the Company reported revenues of , 143, 000 and a net loss to common stockholders of , 324, 000. These results compare with revenues of , 193, 000 and a net loss to common stockholders of , 050, 000, for fiscal 1998. Operating expenses for 1999 were , 381, 000 as compared with , 194, 000 for fiscal 1998. imclone Life Technologies, Inc. announced that revenues and net income reached record levels in the first quarter of 2000. Revenues were 9.3 million in the first quarter of 2000, compared with revenues of 0.0 million in the first quarter of 1999. Net income of .0 million in the first quarter of 2000 represented a increase over net income of .5 million reported in the comparable period of 1999. lifetech NeoPharm, Inc. reported fourth-quarter and annual 1999 results for the company. For the fourth quarter 1999, the company reported a loss of 0, 555, compared to a profit of 3, 072, during the fourth quarter 1998. For the full year, the company reported a profit , 754, 476, compared to a loss of , 573, 723, for the full year of 1998. The company had approximately million of cash on hand at the end of 1999. NeoPharm NeoRx Corp. reported a net loss of .4 million for the first quarter of 2000, compared to a net loss of .7 million for the quarter ended March 31, 1999. Revenues for the first quarter 2000 were ##TEXT##.1 million compared to ##TEXT##.4 million of revenue in the first quarter of 1999. neorx Pioneer Companies, Inc. reported revenues for the first quarter of 2000 of .3 million in comparison with .9 million during the first quarter of 1999. The Company incurred a net loss for the first quarter of 2000 of .6 million compared with a net loss of .0 million during the first quarter of 1999. Results for the 1999 first quarter included a .5 million pre-tax gain on the reduction of the accrual for the Company's retiree medical benefits. piona Roche Group recorded another substantial increase in sales over the previous-year period, with consolidated sales revenues totalling 7.5 billion Swiss francs for the first quarter of 2000. Compared with the first quarter of 1999, sales were up 17 percent in Swiss francs and 7 percent in local currencies. Sales by the Pharmaceuticals Division continued to climb, advancing 700 million to 4.6 billion Swiss francs. Roche Diagnostics once again grew significantly faster than the global market. roche and would give Martek an ongoing royalty upon Abbott's introduction of products using Martek's technology for docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. abbott Aradigm Corp. and the University of California at San Francisco signed a development agreement to begin a new series of experiments evaluating the applicability of Aradigm's AERx Pulmonary Drug Delivery System for delivering nonviral gene vectors by inhalation. Aradigm has been conducting research in this area since 1998 through an earlier collaboration with Harvard University. Both collaborations are being funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health. aradigm Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Eli Lilly announced that they have entered into an agreement to develop a number of orphan G-protein coupled receptors as drug screening targets, utilizing Arena's proprietary CARTTM technology. The collaboration will initially focus on centralnervous-system, endo-crinology and cardiovascular targets with the option to increase the number of targets and expand into other therapeutic classes. lilly Athersys, Inc. and Gene-Cell, Inc. announced the formation of a collaboration to deliver Athersys' Synthetic Microchromosome vectors into human stem cells using Gene-Cell's automated microinjection technology. A major focus of this collaboration is to further develop and optimize proprietary systems for the delivery of SMCs into human stem cells and other more differentiated cell types. Athersys Atugen AG announced that it has signed a research collaboration agreement with Boehringer Ingelheim to exploit Atugen's rapid, high quality gene target validation services. Under the agreement Boehringer Ingelheim will provide Atugen with gene target sequences and specific cell lines. Atugen is to provide delivery optimisation to the cell lines and develop GeneBloc reagents to inhibit the expression of the target genes. atugen Aurora Biosciences Corp. and Organon announced they entered into a three-year agreement to develop high-throughput drug discovery screening assays for several key molecular target classes, including orphan G proteincoupled receptors, ion channels, and enzymes. Organon will also gain access to aspects of Aurora's ion channel technology platform, including its Voltage Ion Probe Reader. aurorabio AVI BioPharma, Inc. and SuperGen, Inc. released terms for the U.S. sales and marketing rights to AVI's therapeutic cancer vaccine, Avicine. The agreement includes an up-front equity investment by SuperGen in AVI of million, a combination of cash and SuperGen stock. This is in addition to a previous -million investment in AVI by SuperGen at the close of 1999. Under the terms of the agreement, additional equity investments and cash and carbenicillin.
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Mercury kg body weight per day as mercuric chloride in the drinking-water resulted in an increase in the lymphoproliferative response after stimulation with T-cell mitogens in a strain of mice particularly sensitive to the autoimmune effects of mercury SJL N ; Hultman & Johansson, 1991 ; . In contrast, a similar exposure of a strain of mice that is not predisposed to the autoimmune effects of mercury DBA 2 ; showed no increase in lymphocyte proliferation. A significant decrease in the weight of the thymus and spleen and a decrease in antibody response were also exhibited at 14.3 mg mercury kg body weight per day, whereas an increase in B-cell-mediated lymphoproliferation was observed at both 2.9 and 14.3 mg mercury kg body weight per day Hultman & Enestrom, 1992 ; . Immune deposits have been observed in the basement membrane of the intestine and kidney of rats following twice weekly gavage exposure to 2.2 mg mercury kg body weight per day as mercuric chloride for 2 months, although no functional changes were evident in these tissues Andres, 1984 ; . Chang & Hartmann 1972b ; reported that administration of 0.74 mg mercury kg body weight per day as mercuric chloride to rats for up to 11 weeks resulted in neurological disturbances consisting of severe ataxia and sensory loss, but the authors did not indicate which of the observed results were due specifically to each of two dosing methods used i.e., oral or subcutaneous ; . Dietary exposure of rats to 2.2 mg mercury kg body weight per day as mercuric chloride for 3 months resulted in inactivity and abnormal gait Goldman & Blackburn, 1979 ; . Evidence of disruption of the bloodbrain barrier was observed 12 h after a single gavage dose of 0.74 mg mercury kg body weight as mercuric chloride in rats Chang & Hartmann, 1972b and byetta.
Surgeon practicing in Beverly Hills, CA. As an oculplastic surgeon and board-certified ophthalmologist, Dr. Hoenig has performed well over 10, 000 BOTOX injections over the past 15 years. More information about Dr. Hoenig can be found at: la-plastic-surgery . Fast Facts: Every five seconds, someone in the world goes blind; a child goes blind every minute. 80% of the world's 50 million cases of blindness could have been prevented or cured. 90% of the world's blind people live in developing countries. 9 million in India, 6 million in China. 7 million in Africa. Cataracts are responsible for almost half of the 7 million blind Africans. In Africa alone, half of the 7 million blind people can be cured with a - surgery and carboplatin
FIG. 4. HAS 1, 2, 3 transcripts are inducible by IL-1 , TSH, and IGF-I in thyroid epithelial cells and HAS 3 mRNA is detectable in situ in thyroid tissue. Thyrocytes and fibroblasts were seeded in 100-mm plates and grown to confluence in medium with 10% FBS. They were then shifted to serum-free medium for 16 h and treated with IL-1 10 ng ml ; , rhTSH 2 mIU ml ; , or IGF-I 10 nM ; . Cell layers were harvested, RNA extracted and subjected to quantitative PCR as described in Materials and Methods. Results are representative of three separate experiments.
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By Deborah M. Clark Dr. Mark Lebwohl, head of Dermatology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, has received a 0, 000 grant from the Food and Drug Administration FDA ; to investigate the and carmustine
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