Abstract: The present study extends previous models of threat management e.g. Helmreich et al., 1999 ; by taking a cognitive approach to understand how pilots behave during threat situations. The CAPT-M model was developed by a group of psychologists and airline training captains to describe the behaviour of commercial airline pilots engaging in effective threat management. The present study attempted to identify the core behaviours that pilots use to manage threat situations successfully, and examine how important these behaviours are perceived to be in terms of both their importance to managing threat situations and their potential for training. These data were then used to validate the CAPT-M model. The present study used a variety of user-consultation techniques, such as group discussion and questionnaire-based methods on 34 commercial airline pilots. The findings revealed tentative support for the structure and content i.e. component stages ; of the CAPT-M model. Specifically, participants rated situation assessment and reassessment to be the most important components of the model, as were having clearly defined goal and situation models. Theoretical considerations and practical implications are discussed. Keywords: threat management pilot cognition. Introduction The present study was conducted as part of European Commission Framework V funded project "Enhanced Safety through Situation Awareness Integration in Training" ESSAI ; . The consortium partners consist of QinetiQ, NLR, DLR, Dedale, Thales, British Airways, Aero-Lloyd, Alitalia and the University of Berlin. The ESSAI project seeks to address problems that occur in commercial flight when pilots are confronted with non-normal and emergency situations, or threats, for which they do not have the appropriate procedures. These threats may occur because of lack of Situation Awareness SA ; on the part of the crew there are procedures, but they do not recognise the situation ; , or may be the result of an unusual chain of events. A potential solution is thought to consist of enhanced training to provide strategies for effective threat management during non-normal or emergency flight operations. Although a threat can be defined as either expected, such as terrain or predicted weather, or unexpected, such as ATC instructions or system malfunctions Helmreich, Klinect and Wilhelm, 1999 ; , we advocate that all threats are usually manifest in two ways; firstly, that there are no well-defined procedures that exist to resolve the threat1; and secondly, that even if a solution is found, its outcome is uncertain. Clearly, a strategy to manage a threat would be to seek an understanding of the event so that a solution can be found. Once this understanding is reached and the actions for resolving the situation are in place, the event is no longer termed a threat. This is consistent with strategies used in other domains to manage crises. For example, the first course of action by medical staff with patients with severe trauma is to stabilise the patient and assess the problem. Only when this has been achieved will remedial action be undertaken. Once again, the event ceases to become a threat when an understanding of the situation is reached and a successful course of action is instigated. Situation assessment, or the process of acquiring and maintaining Situation Awareness for a review see Endlsey, 1995 ; , is an important step in threat management because it provides a state of awareness of the event, and a starting point for any decision-making undertaken to resolve it. Clearly, accurate situation assessment will lead to more effective threat management. Furthermore, the level of understanding of the event will dictate the behaviour that follows. Rasmussen's 1983 ; model of human performance provides a and carbachol.
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ABSTRACT The suppression of superconductivity by the substitution of divalent cations such as Sr or and Ba sites in YBa2Cu Ch-d and the substitution of Pr for La in LaCaBaCu? Oi-d has been examined by oc susceptibility and infra-red spectroscopy. The latter has been found to be particularly useful in obtaining information at the microscopic level regarding the influence of substitution at the planes and at the chains. The studies give support for the model of enhancement of superconductivity by charge fluctuations in the chains. The systematics of the changes in the electrical resistivity in La\-xPrxCaBaCu- ; Oi-d is examined in terms of the percolation models and the existence of a minimum sheet resistance for superconductivity. The role of the various substituents in stabilising the structure and also in the mechanism for superconductivity is examined in terms of a model for the structure of the superconducting AmCvnOv copper oxides on the basis of AX- ; close-packing and the uniaxial magnetic interaction model.
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The model consists of two main parts, the water and heat part and the nitrogen and carbon part. A complete budget and description of all major fluxes and storages of water, heat, nitrogen and carbon is made. The model has previously been used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fluxes for forest ecosystems. In these cases a daily time resolution was a driving condition for the nitrogen carbon processes. This restricts the use to systems where the physical characteristics are known or the physical characteristics are independent of the nitrogen carbon processes. To enable simulations of the influence of present climate on both carbon assimilation and carbon release from all major regions of Sweden, an approach with feedback between abiotic processes and the turnover of carbon in the entire soil-plant system is needed. The model will be briefly described below, and some of the key parameter values will be presented for the simulations. A detailed description of the model is given by Jansson and Karlberg, 2004 , and a review on the software has been presented by Jansson and Moon, 2001 . A detailed review of the model and how it has been used to simulate water, heat and nitrogen conditions for arable land and forests in the Nordic countries has been made by Jansson et al. 1999b . A more general review on the physical processes as described in the model was given by Jansson, 2003.
Sor Philip Needleman, Ph.D., now chief scientific officer for the drug giant Pharmacia and widely known for his work on the inflammatory enzyme COX-2 that led to the development of the top-selling arthritis medication Celebrex. "My entire life was changed being with Phil Needleman, there's just no doubt, " Pur says. "He treated me like a full member of the lab as an undergraduate student. And to this day, that's how I run my lab. Technicians, if they want it, undergrads, everyone--if they'll put in what it takes, they can do real projects and be coauthors on papers." Afterwards, she took her Ph.D. in immunology in 1981 at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. A subsequent postdoctoral fellowship at Rockefeller University led to a promotion to assistant professor in 1984. She arrived at The Wistar Institute as an associate professor in 1992 and became a full professor in 1998. For Pur, the critical need for strong mentoring in the development of young scientists has only become clearer as her career progressed. "You can read textbooks to learn the basics of science, " she says. "But you can't learn in school how to discover something new about an unknown. Someone's got to show you that." "Ellen is very concerned about the career development of her trainees, " confirms Carolyn A. Cuff, Ph.D., a former postdoctoral fellow and staff scientist in Pur's lab, now a research investigator with Bristol-Myers Squibb. "This includes fostering scientific growth as well as promoting the development of time management, writing, and presentation skills that are necessary to thrive in science." Cuff was lead author on a recent study from Pur's lab, published in the October issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, that has been generating interest among atherosclerosis researchers. The study showed that when a strain of mice prone to atherosclerosis--cardiovascular disease--were specially bred to lack CD44, an immune-system molecule Pur has worked with for years, damage to bloodvessel walls of the type associated with heart attacks and stroke was reduced up to 70 percent. The reduction in disease is.
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Applications of biotechnology are quite broad, ranging from agriculture to medicine and is given in a synopsis form in Table 3. A few examples are included for illustration.
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